Sports and Nutrition


Sports and Nutrition

Balance diet: A diet which consists all essential food constituents in correct proportion.

Nutrition: Science of food & its relationship with health.

Two Components:

(1) Macro Nutrients:

(i) Carbohydrates:

  • ‘Carbo’ ‘hydra’ ‘ate’ means ‘carbon’, ‘hydrogen’, ‘oxygen’.
  • Provides energy
  • Acts like a fuel in the body.
  • Important for digestive operations.
Excess carbohydrates lands to :

  • Fat, increase, weight.
  • Accumulate fatty tissue.
  • Leads to lethargic

Lack of carbs:

  • Reduce weight
  • Skin become loose
  • Wrinkles appear.

Sources: Rice, maize, sugar etc.

(ii) Proteins :

  • Contains, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.
  • They are not directly soluble, so converted into amino acid.
  • There are 23 amino acids 9 must be in the diet.
  • Acids create blood, muscles, nails etc.
  • Regulates balance of water & acids.
  • Transport oxygen, they are maximum in the body.
  • Also called nitrogenous food, building blacks of life.
  • Helps in mental development.

Sources: 2 Types

(1) Animal : Found in eggs, meat, fish etc.

(2) Vegetables: Pulses, soyabeen, nuts etc.

Excess use: Heart disease, stroke etc.

  • 36 grams of protein per pound is required.
(iii) Fats:

  • Contains, carbon, hydrogen & oxygen in 76 : 12 : 12.
  • Keeps us warm, provide energy.
  • Protect our organs
  • Helps in production of hormones
  • Makes body soft regulates body temperature.
Types: (i) Saturated fats:

  • Increases chance of heart diseases, due to in cholesterol.
  • Found in fast foods.

(ii) Poly unsaturated, Monasaturated fats:

  • Helps lower blood cholesterol.
  • Poly unsaturated is slightly better then monosaturated fats.

Excess fat: If excess fat not utilized by body, it accumulates in body due to which various organs of body don’t work efficiently.

Less fat: If less, then carbs to some extent changes to fat.

Sources: (i) Animal: Meat, eggs, fish oil etc.

(ii) Vegetables: Dry fruits, soyabean, sweet potato etc.

(iii) Water:

  • Contains, hydrogen & oxygen in 2 : 1.
  • Blood contains 90% of water.
  • Helps in transportation of nutrients to calls of body.
  • Regulates body temperature.
  • Essential for body’s metabolism.

(1) Minerals: 4% of body weight made of minerals.

(a) Macro minerals: 1 gram per day is required.

(i) Calcium:

  • Growth & development of teeth.
  • Clock blood
  • Maintain balance of acid & base.


  • Asthma, Rickets
  • Skin diseases

Rich in: Milk, orange, green vegetables.

(ii) Potassium:

  • Keeps nervous system fit & active.
  • Maintains amount of water in blood & tissues.


  • Weakness muscle of body.
  • Lethargic

Found in: Carrot, mango, onion, tomato.

(iii) Sodium:

  • Helps in muscular activities, contraction.
  • Helps in transmission of nerve impluses.
  • Balance water in body.

Found in:

  • Milk products.
  • Pickles
  • Milk
(iv) Magnesium: Repairs & maintains body.

Found in: Rice, beans, whole grains.

(v) Phosphorus:

  • Forms bone & teeth.
  • Keeps muscle & nerve activities normal.

Found in: egg, fish, meat etc.

(b) Micro-Minerals

(i) Iron:

  • Forms hemoglobin.
  • Metabolishes fats, carbs & proteins.

Deficiency: Anemia

Found in: liver, meat, egg etc.

(ii) Iodine:

  • Helps producing hormone of thyroid gland.
  • Significant for growth & development of body.

Deficiency: Goitre, dwarf, mental retardation.

Found in: Fish, sea food etc.

(iii) Chromium: Stimulates insulin activity.

Deficiency: Diabetes

Found in: Soyabean, carrot, tomato.

(iv) Copper: Helps iron to form haemoglobin.

Found in: Eggs, pulses, green leaf vegetables.

(v) Cobalt: Protects from anaemia.

Found in: Milk, meat, green leafy vegetables.


Fat Soluble:

(i) Vitamin A:

  • Yellow in colour, required in 2 mg.
  • Destroyed by UV rays from sun.
  • Destroyed at normal temperature in presence of oxygen.
  • Protects body from communicable diseases.
  • Helps in formation of bones & teeth.


  • Night blindness.
  • Skin becomes dry.
  • Teeth losses brightness.
  • Negative effect on kidney.

Sources: Ghee, milk, curd, fish etc.

(ii) Vitamin D :

  • White & odourless.
  • Forms good teeth & healthy bones.
  • Formed by carbon, hydrogen & oxygen.
  • White crystalline substance.
  • Maintains level of calcium & phosphorus.


  • Rickets
  • Softness of bones
  • Ill-shaped teeth

Sources: Egg, yold, fish, milk etc.

(iii) Vitamin E: Required for growth of many organs.


  • Occurs in people with genetic disorders.
  • Muscle weakness
  • Vision problems.
  • Causes anaemia.

Sources: Groom vegetables, lines, heart, milk etc.

(iv) Vitamin K:

  • Derived from coagulation, means blood clotting.
  • Requirement is more for pregnant ladies.
  • Prevents from excess bleeding in wounds.


  • Blood don’t clot easily.
  • anemia
(b) Water Soluble:

(i) B or thiamin

  • Colourless, sally, smells like yeast.
  • Maintains health of liver, stomach, brain.
  • Maintains efficiency of nerves & muscles.


  • Acute shortage of B1
  • Beri-Beri diseases
  • Causes irritation & anger
  • Stops development of body.

Sources: Wheat, orange, eggs, rice etc.

(ii) B2 or Riboflavin:

  • Yellow
  • Preserves & maintains characteristics of youth, tightness & smoothness of skin.
  • Keeps eyes, nose, mouth, lips in healthy state.
  • Destroyed in sunlight or cooking food for long time.


  • Stunted growth.
  • Unhealthy skin.
  • Inflamed eyes.
  • Immunity power of white blood corpuscles.

Sources: Egg, yolk fish, rice etc.

(iii) B3 or N1acin:

  • Body don’t store it.
  • Means body excrete excess amount of vitamin.

Deficiency: Indigestion, fatigue, vomiting & depression.

Sources: Yeast, milk, fish, egg etc.

(iv) B5 or Panthathenic:

  • Makes blood cells.
  • Vital role in breakdown of fats & carbs for energy.

Deficiency: Fatigue, depression, vomiting, burning fat.

Sources: Meat, fish, soyabeans, egg yolk.

(v) B6 :

  • forms haemoglobin.
  • keeps skin health.

Sources: Meat, fish, rice, wheat.

(vi) B7 or Biotin:

  • Release energy from carbs & acids in metabolism of fats, proteins & carbs from food.

Deficiency: Impaired growth, depression, muscle strain.

Sources: Yolk, milk, yeast, bread etc.

(vii) B9 :

  • Tasteless, odourless, yellow
  • Helps in blood formation.
  • Cooking destroys it.

Deficiency: Loss of levcoagtes

Sources: Yeast, spinach & liver.

(viii) B12 :

  • Red
  • Destroyed in cooking for long time.

Deficiency: Anaemia

Non-Nutritive Components

(1) Fibre/ Roughage:

  • Undigested part of food.
  • Consist water
  • Correct disorders of large intestine, prevent constipation.


(i) Soluble:

  • Dissolves in water.
  • Reduce blood sugar.

(ii) Insoluble:

  • Good stool softener.
  • Don’t dissolve in water.
  • Both are equally significant for humans.
  • 30 gs of fibre recommended for adult per day.
  • risk of heart disease.

Sources: Whole wheat, vegetables, oats, root etc.

(2) Water:

  • Blood comprise 90% of water.
  • Blood helps in transportation of nutrients.
  • Significant in excretion of waste products.
  • Body losses approx, 2% of body weight.
  • 20% of water intake comes from food.
  • Excretes from body in forms like urine, faces, sweat etc.
(3) Colour compound:

  • Natural pigments, found in fruits & vegetables.
  • Colour from animal product & groins are less bright.
  • Various colour derived from fruits & veges, like red, green etc.

(4) Flavour compound:

  • Derived from both nutritive & non-nutritive compound.
  • Sometimes it becomes difficult to know source of specific flavours.
  • Acidic food provides sour taste.
  • Alkoline provides bitter taste.

(5) Plant compound:

  • Substances are injected that have beneficial or harmful effect inhibit cancer.
  • Many harmful substances in plants.
  • They have harmful effect of ingested in excess.


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