Physical-education-sports-for-cwsn-part-2, In this part we will learn about Disorders and its types like ADHD, ASD, SPD, OCD, ODD.


Concept of Disorder:

1. Disorder is usually used for mental disabilities.
2.  Disorder is any ailment that disturbs the health of an individual.
3. Disorder creates hindrance in an individual’s performance and reduces his efficiency. In the beginning disorder seems to be ordinary but they usually grow or spread in a harmful manner in an individual
4. Most probably, a disorder can not be detected on time, as a result of which, a simple disorder is changed into a disability.
5. A disorder disrupts the normal functioning of an individual.


Types of disorders

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A) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

1. It is a group of behavioral symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.
2. It is medical conditions that affects how well can someone sit still, focus and pay attention.
3. The individual with ADHD have some problems focusing in some activities.
4. This type of disorder is found more common in boys than in girls.
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a) Genetic factors: It is not a disorder that passed socially. Studies shows that parents, siblings, and children of people with ADHD may be up to five times more likely to have the disorder than the people who are not related to someone with ADHD.
b) Brain injuries: When a baby’s brain is damaged before or after birth this could make the baby more likely to develop ADHD later on.
c) Low birth weight: It is observed that children with low birth weight are more likely to develop ADHD.
d) Trauma and brain diseases: Trauma during birth and brain diseases may lead to develop ADHD.
e) Diet: There are a number of evidences which shows that taking a particular type of food or food additives play a significant role in causing ADHD.
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B) Sensory Processing Disorder(SPD):-

1. It is a condition in which the brain has difficulty in receiving and responding to the information that comes in through senses.
2.  It refers to the way the nervous system receives messages from the senses and then turns them into proper motor and behavioral responses.
3. Sensory Processing Disorder may affect one sense such as touch, sight, taste or movement.
4. It may also affect multiple senses.
5. In fact, the person may scream when touched or may vomit or dive under the table after hearing the sound of a leaf blower outside the window.
a) Genetic Factor: Studies indicate that children born to adults who have Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may be at a higher risk to develop SPD. Scientists allude that the cause of SPD are coded into child’s genetic material.
b) Low birth weight: It is also considered one of the causes of sensory processing disorder.
c) Environmental factors: Usually, children who are adopted often experiences sensory
processing disorder due to some restrictions in their early lives or poor parental care.

C) Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD):-

1. It is a disorder that affects development.
2. Here, the word spectrum refers to the range of symptoms and their severity.
3. Generally, the young children with ASD have difficulties with communication, language, social skill and behavior.
4. In other words, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by social interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behavior.
a) Genetic factors: It seems to play a very significant role. The first thing is that something happens at the time of fetal development that alters genes and secondly child inherits problematic genes from one or both the parents.
b) Environmental factors: It is not certain that environment causes ASD. But mothers exposed to high level of pesticides and air pollution may also be at a higher risk of having a child with ASD.

D) Oppositional Defiant Disorder(ODD):-

1. It is a set or group of behavioral disorders called disruptive behavior disorders.
2. It is called by this name because children with such disorders always tend to disrupt those around them.
3. Physicians define this disorder as a pattern of disobedient, hostile and defiant behavior directed toward authority figures.
4. The individuals affected by this disorder usually rebel, argue with adults, refuse to obey and are obstinate.
a) Biological or Genetic factors: Children are more susceptible of developing ODD if they have a parent with a history of ADHD or ODD.
b) Physical factors: the presence of ODD traits has been linked to the existence of abnormal amounts of some brain chemicals. These brain chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, keep the brain chemicals themselves balance properly. 
c) Psychological factors: Children may develop ODD if they don’t have good relation with parents or have neglectful parents or have inability to develop social relationship. 
d) Social factors: Oppositional Defiant Disorder may be due to inconsistent discipline, divorce, poverty, chaotic environment I the family and exposure to violence.

E) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD):-

1. is a mental health disorder that affects people of all ages and walks of life.
2. It occurs when an individual gets caught in a cycle of obsessions and compulsions.
3. It can be said that persons with OCD are plagued to constant thoughts of fears that cause them to perform rituals or routines.
4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a type of mental disorder that causes repeated u unwanted thoughts.
5. To get rid of unwanted thoughts, he/she performs the same task/activity again and again.
1. The exact cause of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is still unknown.
2. Research studies suggest that there may be a problem with the way one part of the brain sends information to another part.
3. Serotonin is the chemical in the brain that sends messages from one part to another.
4. Insufficiency of serotonin may help in causing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.


To read other parts of this chapter click below

Part 1                         

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