It is the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance.
Types – Dynamic
Dynamic – As it is related to movement due to this it is called as Isotonic strength.

  • There is diminishing tendency in dynamic strength for ex – pull-ups/pushups after certain count muscles refuse to do work not even pushup / pull-up.
  • Types of Dynamic strength are as given below:-
  • (a) Maximum
  • (b) Explosive
  • (c) St endurance
Maximum Strength – Ability to work against maximum resistance.

  • not used in majority of sports where heavy resistance is tacked.
  • This type strength is required for short period of time. Ex. Take off in long jump.
Explosive Strength – It is the ability to overcome resistance with high speed.

We can say that it is combination of abilities of strength and speed.

  • It is mostly used in sprint starts, weightlifting.
Strength Endurance – As from its name it is a combination of & endurance strength.

  • We can say that it is the ability to overcome resistance or to act against resistance under condition of fatigue.
  • Generally used in long distance races.
Static Strength – Also called isometric strength.

  • Also it is ability to act against resistance.
  • Neither this type of strength is used nor usually applied in sports but in weightlifting it is used in phases.
Method Isometric, Isotonic, Isokinetic

Isometric – This exercise is not visible therefore connect be observed.

  • In this work is performed but not seen directly.
  • A group of muscles are streched more than the other group.
  • during exercise muscles do not change their length.
  • muscles may feel a slight tremor if exercises done for a long duration of time.
  • We feel that we had done lots of exercise but scientifically it is zero but the expenditure of exercise is same. For ex. pushing a wall.
  • These exercise require less time and can be performed anywhere.
  • Zero / no equipment  is required to do these exercise.
  • For rehabilitation purpose this exercise are so valuable.
Isotonic – In this movement can be seen directly.

  • Work is done in these exercise.
  • They time up muscles.
  • Muscles become flexible and length can be increased by these exercise.
  • Have a great value in the field of sports.
  • Can be done with or without technical equipment.
  • For ex:- Calisthenics exercise, weight training etc best examples.
Isokinetic : – These developed by Perrine in 1968 exercise are performed an specially designed machines.

  • In this contraction of muscles applies maximum force only throughout complete range of movement.

  • It is the ability to sustain our after fatigue.
  • It is most important for majority of sports directly or indirectly.
  • Usually measured by number of repetitions.
Types of Endurance – Nature of Activity

(a) Basic endurance – This is also called as aerobic endurance large number of body muscles are involved and activity is performed at slow pace for long duration. Ex – jogging, swimming at moderate speed for +30 minutes.

(b) General endurance – These activity are aerobic or anaerobic.

  • Activities may be of low or high intensity but for a longer duration.
  • It enables a sportsperson to perform different types of activities for a long duration without getting tired.

(c) Specific endurance –

  • It is the ability to resist fatigue caused by a specific sports activity.
  • Nature of fatigue is different for different sports.
Duration of activity

(a) Speed endurance :- Resist fatigue in activity lasting upto 45 sec.

  • Sprints (100, 200, 400) most suitable example.
  • depend on power and capacity of energy production.

(b) Short term endurance – Resist fatigue in sports lasting from 45 sec – 2 min

  • 800 m is the best example
  • It depend upon a large extent on strength end & speed end.

(c) Middle term endurance:- activities lasting 2 min – 11 min.

  • 1500 m best.
  • depend upon strength end & speed end but to a limited degree.

(d) Long term endurance:- lasting +11 minutes.

  • 5000 m, 10000 m and Marathon are the best examples.
Continuous  Training Method

  • Best method to improve endurance.
  • In this exercise is performed for long duration without any break.
  • In this exercise is done for longer period with 100 intensity.
  • Cross country is the best example.
  • heart beat remains 140-160 beats per minute.
  • Duration must be longer than 30 minutes which can be increased according to ability of & athlete.
Adv. – Increase Glycogen in liver and muscles.

  • Increase number and size of mitochondria.
  • Increase the efficiency of heart and lungs.
  • make athlete self confident & self disciplined and improve.
  • well determined under the condition of fatigue.
Interval Training Method – Bikila from Finland introduce in 1920 also called as Terrace Training. He stressed on importance of Rhythm between work and rest.

The test based upon “Effort and Recovery” Principle during interval training recovery period is given to athlete after speedy workout.

Recovery period can be adjusted according to efficiency of Athlete.

Load can be increased by reducing recovery time of increasing the workout.

Fartlek training Method – Developed by Gosta Holmer in 1937. Combination of continuous and Interval Training Method. Emphasis on Aerobic and Anaerobic system.

Speed – It is the ability to move from place to another in the shortest possible time.
Reaction Ability – It is based on coordinative process that’s why also called as coordinative ability.

  • Reaction ability is the ability to react effectively and quickly to any action or signal.
  • Ex – Sprint race 100 m.
  • Complex Reaction – Ability to react accurately and quickly to determined or unexpected signals.
  • Ex – Facing a ball in Cricket.
Acceleration Ability –

  • Ability to achieve maximum speed from stationary position from very low speed.
  • Explosive strength plays a important role in accerlation ability. Sprint race our best example.
Movement Speed –

  • Ability to or complete a movement in aminimum time known as movement speed.
  • Explosive strength, flexibility, technique help to complete movement speed in time.
  • Movement speed has important role in boxing, jumps etc.
Locomotor Ability – ability to maintain maximum speed for maximum dist/time.

  • Required in few sports events such as 100 m, 200 m, 400 m.

Speed Endurance –

  • Ability to perform movements with high speed under conditions of Fatigue.
  • It depends upon speed, endurance and strength.
  • Also depend upon technique, lactive acid tolerance etc.

Accerlation Run

  • Basic method to improve speed.
  • In this athlete has to maintain maximum speed from stationary position. Ex – 100 m run
  • Athlete required to run specific distance with maximum speed from starting again & again after certain time period.
  • Normal person takes 50-60 m to attain maximum where as very good Athletic (professional) or olympic after takes 20 m.
  • Proper worm up require att. before accerlation run.
  • A gap of 4-5 min require between 2 runs.
Pace Run or Races

  • Running whole distance at constant speed or same.
  • In the beginning don’t run is maximum speed.

  • It is the range of movements of joints.
  • Ability to execute movement with greater range.
  • Depends upon muscle length, joint structure tendons, ligaments.
  • Those who had good flexibility can perform his/her task smoothly and effectively.
  • It is related to genetic factors as well as physical activity program.
  • Help in preventing injuries, posture improvement, healthy joint, reducing law back pain.

Types of Flexibility

Passive Flexibility

  • Ability to do movements with greater distance with external help (partner or machine) Ex – Stretching 180° split with partner.
  • Passive flex. always greater than active flex.
Active Flexibility

  • Ability to do movement for great distance without any external help. Ex – split without partner.
Static Flex – Usually required when he/she remains in static position. Ex diving, sitting, lying start position in sports.

Dynamic Flex – needed for doing moving movement with great distance when he/she in motion. Ex. – Flex can be achieved by stretching exercise.

Methods to improve.

1) Ballistic Method – Movement is performed with a seeing in a rhythmic way.

  • Stretching exercise can also be performed rhythmically with a count.
  • The joint is stretched upto maximum limit and then it is again flexed.
  • Rs for precaution must perform warm up.
2) Static stretching method –

  • It involves gradually easing towards stretching position and holding the position.
  • Stretching time depends upon the purpose.
  • For improving flexibility time is 30 sec and for cool down it is 10 sec.
3) Dynamic stretching method –

  • It consist of control saving movement of arms and legs.
  • It gently take you the limit which vary person to person.
  • In this person has to start half speed with some repetitions and then gradually goes to full speed.
Proprioceptive Neuro – Muscular Facilitation Technique.

  • Used by advanced sportsperson for gaining flexibility.
  • It involve both stretching and contraction before strech to attempt to achieve maximum muscle relaxation.
Coordinative Abilities

  • Earlier till 1980 it is known as agility then it is changed into coordinative abilities.
  • It depend upon central nervous system.
  • It is the ability of an individual which enable the individual to do various related activities properly as well as efficiently.
  • Many things like Rhythm, Flow, Accuracy depend upon coordinative abilities.


1. Orientation Ability –

  • Ability to determine the position of the body.
  • Ability to determine the position of the body when body is in space in relation to gravity.
  • To determine position when object is moving like ball, apponent, partner etc.
  • Depends upon functional capacity of sensory organ like eyes, kinesthetic sense organ etc.

2. Coupling Ability

Ability to combine movement of different body parts to performing skill/movement/work spoothly.

Usually it require in majority of sports but specially it require in combative sports.

For example – In karate when a kick is hit by player.

3. Reaction Ability

Ability to react immediately and effectively to a signal.

Simple Rea Ab – react immediately in already determined manner to a well known signal.

Ex – Sprint Race

Complex Rea Ab – React immediately and accurately to undetermined signal.

Ex. – tacking opponents in football.

4. Balance Ability – Ability to maintain balance during the complete body movements and to regain balance quickly just after balance disturbing position/unbalanced position.

5. Rhythm Ability

  • Ability to observe the rhythm of a movement and perform movement according to require rhythm.
  • In dance & figure they have observe the rhythm and perform also.
  • This ability is required in gymnastic, diving, figure skating etc.

6. Adaptation Ability

  • Ability to adjust movement effectively on the basis of changes according to situation.
  • Changes will be sudden.
  • Ability to do task effectively during sudden changes.
Differentiation Ability

  • Ability to achieve a high degree of accuracy and economy of separate body movement and movement phase during motor action.


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