CH 1 & Psychology & Sports

CH 1 & Psychology & Sports

Planning in Sports

Planning is interrupted as a process of develop a strategy to achieve objectives, solve problems & facilitate action in Physical Education, planning includes: Organising various tourneys, Sports training, Long term, short term.


1) Reduce pressure of immediacy:

  • Important objective
  • If organizer prepare good plan before there will be no pressure.

2) Maintain good control over all the activities:

  • Planning & control are connected with each other.
  • If tournaments are organized with perfect plan, control over all activities becomes easy.

3) Facilitate proper co-ordination.

  • Without proper co-ordination, among officials of tournament, it’s then not easy to orgainse a competition.
  • Proper planning ensures proper co-ordination.

4) Increase efficiency:

  • Main objective of sports planning.
  • Proper planning, leads to increase in efficiency of sports official.
  • Important aim for officials.

5) Enhance performance:

  • Significant objective of planning
  • Without proper planning, it’s impossible to improve performance of sportsperson.

Administrative Director

1) Publicity committee:

  • Their works is to announce dates, venues & sports events.
  • Main responsibility is advertise sports events.

2) Transportation:

  • Responsible for providing facilities regarding transports of various teams to venue or place of boarding & lodging.
  • Main duty is make necessary arrangement for transport.

3) Boarding & lodging:

  • Make necessary arrangement for accommodation & serve meals to players & officials.

4) Decoration & ceremony

  • Responsible for decoration of sports arena.
  • Necessary arrangement for opening ceremony, victory on closing ceremony.
  • Arrangement   for trophies, medals & certificates.

5) Grounds & equipment:

  • Responsible for preparing grounds, lay trash & field.
  • Responsible for providing equipment according to specifications.

6) Refreshment & entertainment:

  • Charge for supplying & drinks to guest officials etc.
  • Make some arrangement during & closing ceremony.

7) Reception:

  • Responsible for welcoming chief guests & spectators.

8) Entries & programmes:

  • Send entry forms to institutions early & receive on time, allal numbers, arrange seats for guests & spectators.
  • Prepare fixture of team.
  • Prepares shouters & circulates among guest, managers of teams & officials.

9) Officials:

  • Selects various officials like guides, refries, clerks, umpires etc in games as per requirements.

10) Announcement:

  • Responsible for making announcement during games.
  • Which & when an event is going to take place, name of officials conduct events & give ammentory of games.

11) First Aid:

  • Headed by well-qualified doctor.
  • Provide first aid to injured athletes.

12) Finance:

  • Prepares budget & maintains account of income & expenditure.

Pre-Tournament responsibility:

1) Prepare budget of tournament.

2) Prepare schedule

3) Form committees 

4) Arrange prices & certificates 

5) Send information to various team about fixtures.

During-tournament responsibility:

1) Ensure proper arrangement during inauguration.

2) Prepare proper score-sheet.

3) Proper refreshment

4) Arrangement of first-aid

5) To maintain discipline

Post tournament responsibilities

1) Give prizes & certificates

2) Present momentous to chief guest

3) Provide security refund to departing teams.

4) Make payments to officials.

5) Prepare reports related to expenditure.

Psychology & Sports


  • Derived from latin word ‘Persona’ which means mask.
  • Means a person is more than his outer appearance.
  • It’s dynamic & organized set of characteristics possesses by a person that influence cognates emotions, behaviour.
  • Refers to pattern of thought, feelings, social adjustment and behaviour.

1) Physical dimension: Significant dimension

  • Based on fact, “1st impression is last imprression”.
  • Related to good physique, good appearance etc.
  • Individuals with good height, weight, posture etc. impression others easily.
  • On contrary, unconfident, weak person not give good impression at least in beginning.
  • Inner qualities doesn’t matter in beginning.
2) Mental dimension: 

  • Significant attribute of personality.
  • Related to mental & intelligent strength.
  • It cannot be ignored, it’s real identity of a person.
  • Those who are not mentally sound, have nothing to offer others.
  • The development of institution, thinking reasoning etc are possible only through education.
3) Social dimension:

  • Next important dimension
  • Humans are social animals.
  • Socialibiity  is inherent in man’s biological nature, right from the time of birth.
  • Human child learns to behave because he is basically sociable.
  • A good personality is one which is sociable & socializing.
  • Social qualities like character, mortality etiquettes, manners kindness etc.
4) Emotional dimension:

  • Important dimension
  • Related to emotional stability, which is essential aspect of personality.
  • Means one must have proper control over emotions like fear, disgust, distress, happiness etc.
  • These situations show ones emotional statues
  • If emotions are not controlled, it shows signs of immaturity.
Jung’s Classification

1) Introverts:

  • Characteristics, shyness talk less.
  • They are self-centred, unable to adjust easily in society.
  • They are very sensible, regid in ideas & future oriental.

2) Extroverts :

  • They are friendly, outgoing, talkative & social in nature.
  • Prefer social contacts.
  • They’re generous, supportive & courageous
  • Show interest in present redity  than fature.
  • The express feelings openly.
  • Not affected easily by troubles.

3) Ambiverts:

  • Few people are pure introvert on extrovert.
  • Majority comprises the characteristics of both.
Big Five Personality Theory

1) Openers:

  • People who learn now things, concepts & experiences.
  • Include traits of being imaginative, insightful & how variety of interest.

2) Conscientiousness: 

  • The people with high degree of it are reliable & prompt.
  • They remain organised, systematic, laborious & complete in all aspects.

3) Extroversion: 

  • Extrovert they get energy from interaction with individuals.
  • Introvert, gets energy from within themselves.
  • Includes trait of being energetic, talkative & assertive.

4) Agreeableness:

  • They are friendly, co-operative, compatible, kind & gentle.
  • Usually kind, generous, affectionate & sympathetic.

5) Neuroticis:

  • Relates to one’s emotional stability & degree of negative emotions.
  • More neuroticism, experience emotional stability & negative emotions.
  • Remain moody & tense.

  • It’s a behaviour with a goal of harming or injuring another living who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
  • Accidental harm is not aggression.

(1) Hostile aggression:

  • Cause harm whether physical psychological on someone.
  • Known as reactive aggression.
  • Main aim is to cause injury to sports person.
  • Intention is to cause pain and suffering.
  • Eg: Bowler throwing bouncer deliberately to shake concentrates of batsman.
(2) Instrumental Aggression:

  • Aggressive behaviour in pursuit of non-aggressive goal.
  • Known as channeled aggression, not accompanied by anger.
  • Important goal is to win the competition.
(3) Assertive behaviour:

  • Different type of aggression behaviour.
  • Behaviour, involves use of legitimate, physical or verbal force.
  • Intention is to establish dominance rather than to harm opponent.
  • Eg: sledging in cricket.
  • Act to be assertive, it must be goal oriented with no intention to harm, with no rules break.
Psychological Attributes

(1) Self-Esteem:  

  • Defined as how much one appreciate and like oneself regardless of circumstances.
  • Involves variety of belief about self, like appearance, belief emotion & behaviours.
  • Arises from within.
  • Participation in sports & games improvised.

(2) Mental Imagery:

  • Involves athlete imagining themselves in an environment performing specific activity.
  • Gives him feeling of satisfaction & confidence.
  • Develops positive altitude.
  • Stabilizes anxiety, improves body image, remove negative thoughts, depression etc.

(3) Self-Talk:

  • When one talks to oneself.
  • Strong internal motivating factors which easily overcome challenges.
  • Books us internally moreover to correct mistakes on their own.
  • In sports, improves performance of individual.

(4) Goal setting:

  • Goal is something one wants to accomplish.
  • Practiced in games & sports, helpful in setting goals & achieving them step by step.
  • Strong internal motivating factor.


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